Journalists and media workers across Europe face an onslaught of online harassment, taking a variety of forms. Displayed on this page are all such alerts recorded on Mapping Media Freedom in EU member states and candidate countries (excluding the United Kingdom) since January 2020.

At the outset, it is important to flag that all qualitative research points towards a significant underreporting of the problem. One reason for this is that many journalists have grown accustomed to online harassment and have come to see it as being part of the job. Women journalists are particularly at risk of suffering online harassment. In this context, they are targeted twice: as professionals and as women.

The documented harassment ranges from threatening messages to insults, trolling and attempts to discredit journalists and their work. In some countries, public figures in high-ranking positions actively contribute to the creation of this toxic online environment.

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